I was told I have Cervical  Dysplasia - What is cervical dysplasia? 

Cervical dysplasia is a premalignant or precancerous change to the cells of your cervix. There are three types of cervical dysplasia: mild, moderate, and severe. 

Mild dysplasia [Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion] [CIN I] 

The abnormal cells occupy one third of thickness of skin covering of cervix.

It is the most common. 

Mild dysplasia is cervical tissue response to the Human Papilloma virus. 

Seventy per cent of women with mild dysplasia will have a normal Pap smear without any treatment. 

Mild dysplasia however can progress to moderate or severe dysplasia. 

Moderate and severe dysplasia [High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion] [ HGSIL]: Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade II & III)[CIN II & III]: 

The abnormal cells occupy two thirds or full thickness of skin covering of cervix.

HGSIL are assessed with colposcopy and are treated when they are discovered, because of their higher rates of turning into cancer. 

 

What causes cervical dysplasia? 

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most frequent cause of cervical dysplasia. 

Cigarette smoking. Women who smoke concentrate the chemicals nicotine and cotinine into their cervix, which harms the cells. 

Men concentrate nicotine and cotinine into their semen and can bathe the cervix with these chemicals during intercourse. Male partners of women with cervical dysplasia should not smoke. 

Nutritional deficiencies.  Women who do not consume five servings of fresh vegetables or fruits each day should consider taking a daily multivitamins with antioxidants such as Vitamin E or beta-carotene

 

What is HPV?

HPV is short for Human Papilloma Virus. HPV is commonly called the wart virus. There are more than 60 types of HPV that have been identified. 

Types 1, 3 and 5 can cause warts on the hands and feet of children. 

Types 6 and 11 can cause warts on men's and women's bottoms (genital warts). 

Types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35 may not cause warts but can cause changes to the cells of your vagina or cervix, such as dysplasia.

 

How would I know I have HPV? 

PAP smear often detects HPV.  

Even if Pap smear is negative for HPV it is 80% to 90% certain that you have the virus if your Pap show cervical dysplasia. 

Only one person in 100 with HPV will exhibit any warts on external genitalia.

 

How did I get HPV? 

You generally get the virus through sexual intercourse.

Condoms can prevent the spread of many diseases, but not HPV as HPV is found on all the genital tissues, and a condom on the penis usually will not prevent transmission of HPV. 

The virus can lay dormant on your cervix for 20 years before it causes warts or dysplasia. If you have a recent abnormal smear, you may have acquired HPV years earlier. 

 

Can I get rid of HPV and dysplasia? 

It is difficult to get rid of the HPV. Even if your entire cervix is burned or frozen, the virus generally still remains. 

The goal of treatment is not elimination of the virus, but for the body's immune system to control the virus. Immune system function can be enhanced by stopping smoking and by taking multivitamins. 

Cervical dysplasia can be removed by many techniques if needed.

Women with normal immune system function can be cured of cervical dysplasia. You should follow your gynaecologist's instructions to improve your chances of keeping the cervix free of dysplasia.

 

Treatments for Cervical Dysplasia

Surgical Therapies

Loop diathermy treatment

  • Loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP)
  • Loop excision of the transformation zone (LETZ)
  • Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). 

 

Laser surgery

  • Cone
  • Vaporization 

 

Cone Biopsy

    Knife cone biopsy

 

Cryosurgery or Freezing

 

Medical Therapies 

    TCA (trichloroacetic acid) 

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU, Efudex) cream. 

    5-FU (5-fluorouracil) and TCA (trichloroacetic acid) do not appear to be of any benefit

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